Extensive Air Showers And Total Cosmic Radiation

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Synchrotron Radiation at Radio Frequencies

We review some of the properties of extensive cosmic ray air showers and describe a simple model of the radio-frequency radiation generated by shower electrons and positrons as they bend in the Earth s magnetic field. We perform simulations by calculating the trajectory and radiation of a few thousand charged shower particles.

Cosmic rays air showers properties and characteristics of the

Key words: cosmic rays, air showers, radio emission, graphical user interface. 1. INTRODUCTION Every day we live in a medium surrounded by a natural fond of radiation. The cosmic radiation was first discovered by Victor Hess in 1912 when he flew in a bal-loon and measured the ionization of the air up to altitudes of 5 km. In his experiment

EUSO: using high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos as

extensive air showers (*) This text is largely derived from contributions made by the author in 2000/2001 to other Workshops and Confer-ences and from documentation submitted by the EUSO Con-sortium to the European Space Agency as a part of the EUSO proposal. 1. Introduction Cosmic radiation can be considered the par-

Search for compact sources of cosmic photons above 200 TeV

From April 1988 to February 1990 we used a two-level array of scintillators to search in the cosmic radiation for compact sources of r rays above 200 TeV. Counters on the surface measured the size and direction of extensive air showers while counters buried 3 m below ground measured their muon content.


3. Extensive air showers. 4. Primary cosmic radiation (including exper-iments carried out using balloons, satellites, and rockets). 5. Origin of cosmic rays. 6. Intensity variation of cosmic rays. The subjects discussed at the Moscow Confer-ence differed from those of former conferences not only in that the experiments and results obtained by

Collaborative Research: Characterization of Microwave

from Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Ray Extensive Air Showers P. W. Gorham,1 J. J. Beatty,2 P. Mioˇcinovi ´c, 1 and G. S. Varner1 1University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 2Dept. of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Introduction

Characteristics of High Energy Particle Interactions from the

light. This light is the basis for detection of longitudinal development of air showers in the Pierre Auger Observatory. Figure 1.2: Schematic diagram of an extensive air shower 1.4Cosmic Ray Shower Pro le Shower pro le ( gure 1.3) is the number of charged particles versus the shower depth X(g/cm2). The air shower deposited energy in the


extensive air showers deep in the atmosphere. As for the raaio-astronomical evidence about cosmic rays in remote regions of the galaxy, this will be treated in the following lecture on cosmic-ray origin. t In this lecture we shall sketch come salient features of the cosmic radiation incident

Study of muon bundles from extensive air showers with ALICE

total accumulated run time amounted to 30.8 days, resulting in approximately 22.6 million events with at least one reconstructed muon in the ALICE TPC. Cosmic ray muons are created in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) following the interaction of cosmic ray primaries (protons and heavier nuclei) with nu-clei of the upper atmosphere.

h y s i c s & Aeros Journal of Astrophysics t r o p pac s e f

interaction of high energy cosmic rays with the earth s atmospheric nuclei produces extensive air showers, which are continuously rains on the earth through all the directions. These extensive air showers have been generated by the following interactions- Electromagnetic interactions of charged particles, which gives electrons and photons.

Results from the KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande, and LOPES experiments

cosmic-ray particles in the atmosphere the extensive air showers. The challenge of these investigations is to reveal the properties of the shower inducing primary particle behind an absorber the atmosphere with a total thickness at sea level corresponding to 11 hadronic interaction lengths or 30 radiation lengths.

The Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment

radiation from high-energy primary cosmic rays and the large particle air shower they induce upon entering the atmosphere. Using a camera comprising 16 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for a total of 256 pixels, the Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment (TrICE) resolves suhstructures in particle air showers v/ith 0,086° resolution.

1 Introduction - IKIU

proposed, which can be tted to all types of cosmic ray showers. The t parameters seem to be promising for primary cosmic ray mass discrimination. Keywords: Cosmic Rays, Extensive Air Shower, Cherenkov Radiation 1 Introduction When high energy cosmic rays and gamma rays enter the atmosphere, they interact with the nuclei of the molecules in the air.

Simulation of Radiation Energy Release in Air Showers

A simulation study of the energy released by extensive air showers in the form of MHz radiation is performed using the CoREAS simulation code. We develop an efficient method to extract this radiation energy from air-shower simulations. We determine the longitudinal profile of the radiation energy release and compare it to the longitudinal

RADIO DETECTION Conference tunes in to high-energy particles

extensive air shower ionization, and he described analogous mea-surements on meteor ionization trails. He discussed the potential for adding a triggered radar system to existing cosmic-ray detectors. Alfred Wong (UCLA) reported that a network of antennas distributed across Alaska have sufficient phase sensitivity (0.1°) to detect a

Spectral resolved Measurement of the Nitrogen Fluorescence

At higher energies cosmic radiation can only be measured indirectly by means of extensive air showers. The highest energies of cosmic rays are a hundred million times larger compared to fixed target experiments and incorporate tens of joules in a single particle or nucleus [12]. Thus, apart from astrophysical considerations, the cosmic radiation

Durham E-Theses Computer simulations of cosmic ray extensive

1-1 The Cosmic Radiation 1 1-2 Extensive Air Showers 2 1~3 Primary Composition 3 1-4 Computer Simulations of EAS 6 1-5 The Have rah Park Array 8 1- 6 The Present Work 9 CHAPTER TWO; A Review of Previous Air Shower Simulations 2- 1 Introduction 11 2-2 A Survey of Earlier Simulations 12 2-3 Results Obtained in Previous Simulation Studies 18

Durham E-Theses The pulse shape of optical cerenkov radiation

of Cosmic Rays 7 1.3 Extensive Air Showers 8 1.3-1 Cascade Processes 10 1 3°2 Observable Quantities 11 1.4 Scope of this Work 12 CHAPTER 2 ATMOSPHERIC CERENKOV RADIATION 2.1 Introduction 13 2.2 The Physical Basis of the Cerenkov Effect 13 2.3 Cerenkov Radiation in Extensive Air Showers 17 2.4 Detection of Cerenkov Radiation 18

A Review work on Atmospheric Nanoparticles and Cosmic Ray

arrival directions of the ultra-high-energy primary cosmic rays by the techniques of density sampling and fast timing of extensive air showers. Nanoparticles have large surface area to volume ratios and react rapidly in the atmosphere, commonly growing into particles large enough to interact with radiation and to have serious

Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio

First measurements of the radio footprint of extensive air showers, made during periods when there were thunder-storms in the area, so-called thunderstorm conditions, have been reported by the LOPES [21,22] Collaboration. It was seen that the amplitude of the radiation was strongly affected by the atmospheric electric fields [23]. More

The influence of weather effects on the reconstruction of

The extensive air showers created by highly energetic cosmic rays are measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The development of these air showers in the dynamic medium of the Earth s atmosphere affects the reconstruction and ultimately the determination of the energy for the pri-mary particle.

Application of CORSIKA Simulation Code to Study Lateral and

Cosmic ray fluorescence light extensive air shower Monte Carlo method CORSIKA. 1. Introduction One of the important aspects of cosmic ray experi-ments is determining energy of primary particles. But at very high energies, due to very low flux of radiation, direct detection method is not possible. Instead, in these


on extensive air showers, there is one more interesting poml At all zenith angles from 15'^-fiO*^ for the three separations 10 m, 25 m, and 40 m, the shower rate is slightly more from West than from East direction This East-West asymmetry of extensive air showers is shown in Table ITT, In view ol the very large'

Azimuthal effect on extensive air showers of cosmic rays

The azimuthal anisotropy of cosmic rays was revealed in 1930's as the east-west asymmetry. Here we present the first observation of geomagnetic effect on extensive air showers (EAS) using the long-term data of the Yakutsk array. More than 2.5×105 showers detected at E > 1017 eV demonstrate the azimuthal

Galactic and extra-galactic cosmic rays: air shower experiments

How a cosmic-ray air shower is detected Primary cosmic rays (mostly protons or light nuclei) reach earth s atmosphere from outer space Grid of particle detectors to intercept and sample portion of secondaries 1. Number of secondaries related to energy of primary 2. Relative arrival times tell us the incident direction 3.

Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Radio-wave detection

charged cosmic rays and neutrinos. Cosmic-ray detection via radio emission from extensive air showers has been demonstrated to be a reliable technique that has reached a reconstruc-tion quality of the cosmic-ray parameters competitive with more traditional approaches. Radio

Cosmic Ray Induced High Energy Extensive Air Showers

can be used for. One such example is to use the NO A detectors to study cosmic ray induced high energy extensive air showers. While most of the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed or scattered in the atmosphere and the matter above the detector (overburden), muons are easily detected in

About chemical composition of the primary cosmic radiation at

composition of the primary cosmic radiation at ultra-high energies in terms of some model of hadron interactions. The fluxes of electrons, positrons, gam-mas, Cherenkov photons and muons in individual extensive air showers induced by the primary protons and helium, oxygen and iron nuclei at the level of observation have been estimated with

1 Introduction - ijaa.du.ac.ir

proposed, which can be tted to all types of cosmic ray showers. The t parameters seem to bepromising for primary cosmic ray mass discrimination. Keywords: Cosmic Rays, Extensive Air Shower, Cherenkov Radiation 1 Introduction When high energy cosmic rays and gamma rays enter the atmosphere, they interact with the nuclei of the molecules in the air.

The relation of the lateral distribution of Cerenkov light

widths to the distance to maximum of air showers J R Patterson and A M Hillas-The sensitivity of Cerenkov radiation pulses to the longitudinal development of cosmic-ray showers A M Hillas-The lateral distribution of Cerenkov light from extensive air showers B R Dawson, R W Clay, J R Patterson et al.-Recent citations Mass composition of cosmic

Universal behavior of electrons & positrons in extensive air

lated extensive air showers at energies 1017 1020 eV, we discuss universality features of electron and positron distributions in very-high-energy cosmic-ray air showers. A study of these distributions as a function of particle energy, vertical and horizontal momentum angle, lateral distance, and time distri-

13. A Search for the Quark in Extensive Air Showers, using a

cosmic ray flux have covered the possibilities both of the quark arriving unaccom-panied by other particles and of its arriving as a member of a cosmic ray shower. It is more likely that quarks are to be found among the core particles of extensive air showers (EAS). The necessary energy is there, for showers can be examined the

any - deepblue.lib.umich.edu

content of extensive air showers. We find no evidence for an excess number of muon- poor showers and conclude that v-rays comprise less than 0.4% of all cosmic rays above 200 TeV, and less than 0.05% above 1000 TeV (90% CL). The muon content

Scientific Research Institute, Itabashi, Tokyo *Institute for

of the theory of the cascade showers. The accurate knowledge of the lateral distribution of cascade showers becomes indispensable in the analysis of extensive air showers and other cosmic-ray phenomena at high energies. Several works have been made along this line,ll2l but their applicabilities to

A Heitler model of extensive air showers

Keywords: Cosmic rays; Extensive air showers; Simulations 1. Introduction Extensive air showers develop in a complex way as a combination of electromagnetic cascades and hadronic multiparticle production. It is necessary to perform detailed numerical simulations of air showers to infer the properties of the primary cos-mic rays that initiate them.

The lateral distribution function of cosmic-ray induced air

studies of the LDF of multi-TeV cosmic-ray showers. The detector is instrumented with 1,200 photomultipliers (PMTs) in close-packed water Cherenkov tanks containing a total of 60 ML of water. We present a study of the LDF of cosmic-ray air showers recorded by HAWC in 2016 with energies between 3 TeV and 300 TeV and zenith angle < 16.7 The


sorption of shower particles increases in showers with total number of particles N > 105 INTRODUCTION NuMEROUS experimental data on extensive air showers (EAS) of cosmic radiation, obtained at various altitudes, lead to the conclusion that the shower structure i.e., its lateral distribution and

Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector Sim on GPUs GTC 2013

Indirect Observation- Extensive Air Showers While complex, the average shower behavior can be parameterized for use in Detector Response simulations. Most of the primary cosmic ray particle's energy ends up in the electromagnetic component. Shower electrons excite Nitrogen Molecules in the atmosphere. The molecules give back the excess

Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 10 eV

Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV Mario Bertaina1;2;a 1Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino - Italy 2Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Torino - Italy Abstract. Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet.

Showers. - INSPIRE-HEP

electromagnetic radiation that is strong and coherent at radio-wave frequencies due to the length scales that are relevant for this process [1]. Recent observations of radio-wave emission from cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers [2{8] have shown that under fair-weather con-ditions there is a very good understanding of the emission