Folded Chromosomes Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae and discuss the implications of our in vivo data in relation to in vitro models. Results Novel condensin mutants In S. cerevisiae, gross defects in chromosome segregation and condensation have been described for mutants in three con-densin subunits: Smc2p, Smc4p, and Brn1p (Strunnikov et
The dynamic three-dimensional organization of the diploid
different regions of a chromosome and between different chromosomes, thereby providing information on how the chromosomes are folded and arranged inside the nucleus. However, most animal cells contain two copies of each chromosome, and the Hi-C method is not able to distinguish between identical copies of chromosomes.
Chromosome-refolding model of mating-type switching in yeast
regulated change in the folded state of a yeast chromosome after a DSB is directly responsible for steering recombination toward one of the two available homologous DNA sequences. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the spatial or-ganization of chromosomes in interphase is determined by their polymer nature.
Functional links between telomeres and proteins of the DNA
(Est2p in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; TERT in mammals) and the telomerase RNA template (Tlc1 in S. cerevisiae and hTR in humans), other factors are clearly needed for telomerase action in vivo (see Table 1). For instance, effective telomerase function in S. cerevisiae requires Est1p and Est3p, and the loss of either
Functions of the SMC5/6 Complex - MDPI
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) 5/6 complex composition and functions. (A) Consensual model of SMC5/6 complex without and (B) with species-speciﬁc positions of NON-SMC ELEMENT (NSE) 5(-like) and NSE6(-like) subunits in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens.
Association of the 2-μ m DNA Plasmid with Yeast Folded
Cells and Growth Conditions. For preparation of folded chromosomes, Saccharomyces italicus C-105 ([cir+], diploid) ([cir+] indicates the presence of the 2-jim DNA plasmid), provided by T. Petes of the University of Chicago, and the following S. cerevisiae strains were used: cyto 2 ([ciro], a, adel,
Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 401-435, 1996
pharmaceuticals. Genetic manipulation of S. cerevisiae has been made easier with greatly improved understanding of the yeast's biology and genetics. Recombinant proteins can be expressed in the yeast, correctly folded, and modified at the posttranslational level to yield a biologically active product.
Kinetochore Biorientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Therefore, the tightly folded conformation of the Ndc80 com-plex is likely required to promote kinetochore biorientation early in mitosis. Materials and Methods Strains All strains used in this study (Supporting Information, Table S1) were derived from W303. Protein expression and puriﬁcation Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ndc80 complex was
Paving the way for the production of secretory proteins by
ing for novel genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in recombinant antibody production. FEMS Yeast Res 17, fow104. de Ruijter, J.C., Koskela, E.V., and Frey, A.D. (2016b) Enhancing antibody folding and secretion by tailoring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endoplasmic reticulum. Microb Cell Fact 15: 87.
An Oligonucleotide Microarray-Based Method for Determining
of interest: chromosome III and 233 genes from other chromosomes, including those that were regulated by the cell cycle, Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex, histone depletion, and histone tail modiﬁcation. Chromosome III, the shortest chromosome in S. cerevisiae, was tiled in its entirety. For each of the 233 other genes, 900 base
Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005 - MIT
genetic study. Yeast is more properly known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the single-celled microbe used to make bread and beer. Yeast can exist as haploids of either mating type a (MATa) or mating type a (MATa). Haploid cells of different mating type when mixed together will mate to make a diploid cell.
ChromosomePolymorphisms Strains of Hansenula polymorpha (syn
H. polymorpha chromosomes apparently range from about 650 to 2,200 kb. The exact number of H. polymorpha chromosomes remains to be determined, since it cannot simply be inferred from the number of bands. Apart from comigrating chromosomal DNA molecules, very large or unusually folded molecules that do not enter the gel might escape detection (14).
Developmentally regulated phosphoproteins associated with
originally termed folded chromosomes , have led us to the view that nutritional arrest defines a unique cellular state distinct from GI. This view is based on the finding that FSCC, associated with stationary phase or ammonium-starved, non- cycling cells (go form), can be distinguished by sedimentation
Developmentally regulated MAPK pathways modulate
genes in several ways. First, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (in contrast to Schizosaccharomyces pombe) hog1 mutants are not defective for mating (19). Hog1 is a member of a conserved MAPK activated by various stresses. In S. cerevisiae, hog1 cells are exquisitely sensitive to osmotic stress. It is worth mentioning that p38, the mammalian
Human CENP-A Contains a Histone H3 Related Histone Fold
minichromosome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data indicate that altered chromatin structure is intimately related to the function of centromeres. The discovery of centromere-specific autoantibodies in patients with limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome) and characterization of the antigens recognized by these sera
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins
DNA. The DNA binding properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Smc1p and Smc2p C-terminal domains have been analyzed in greater detail . While the N-terminal domains bind neither single-stranded nor double-stranded DNA, the C-termini showed a strong preference of at least 100-fold for double-stranded DNA substrates in gel-shift assays. In
Experimental/theoretical approach for chromosome conformation
provide an example of functional organization of chromosomes so as to direct homology search during recombination. References:  Lee C-S, Haber JE, Mating-type gene switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Spectr 3, A3 A0013, 2014, (2015).  Coïc E, Richard GF, Haber JE, Saccharomyces cerevisiae donor preference during mating-
CHROMATIN REMODELERS AND THEIR ROLES IN CHROMATIN ORGANIZATION
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two yeasts showed differences in nucleosome spacing, the roles of DNA sequence features and in the regular nucleosome arrays. This argues against the existence of an evolutionarily conserved genomic code for nucleosome positioning. Instead, species-specific nucleosome positioning factors (e.g. chromatin
Positional dependence of transcriptional inhibition by DNA
chromosomes of eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. In this study, we induced the accumulation of DNA (þ) helical tension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and examined how DNA transcription was affected along yeast chromosomes. The results revealed that, whereas the overwinding of DNA produced a general impairment of
binding proteins, such as Cdc13 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the propensity of G-rich sequences to form various non-B DNA structures. Using CD and NMR spectroscopies, we show here that G-overhangs of S. cerevisiae form distinct Hoogsteen pairing based secondary structures, depending on their length.
A combination of transcription factors mediates inducible
ding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a well-studied model of genome conformation, genes targeted to nuclear pores are activated (Taddei et al., 2006), while those at the nuclear periphery are repressed (Andrulis et al., 1998). Transcription factors (TFs) are attractive candidates for orchestrating such dynamic changes in
Kinetochore biorientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
novel ndc80 mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that contains mutations in the coiled-coil domain. This ndc80 mutant accumulates erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments, resulting in misalignment of kinetochores on the mitotic spindle. Genetic analyses with suppressors of the ndc80 mutant and in vitro cross-linking experiments suggest that the
Eukaryotic Genomes: Organization, Regulation, and Evolution
places on metaphase chromosomes. Interphase chromatin is generally much less condensed than the chromatin of mitotic chromosomes, but it shows several of the same levels of higher-order packing. ° Much of the chromatin is present as a 10-nm fiber, and some is compacted into a 30-nm fiber, which in some regions is folded into looped domains.
Isolation of Folded Chromosomes from the Yeast Saccharomyces
charomyces cerevisiae cells. The DNA in both structures ap-pears to be folded into at least 60 domains and characterized by a negative superhelical density. Sensitivity to proteases and insensitivity to RNases suggest that proteins and not RNA are important in maintaining the organization of the chromosomes in both structures.
Aug 19, 2014 ! 3! Introduction) Directed!evolution!using!living!systems!allows!selections!for!improved! biomolecule!function!to!be!directly!coupled!to!phenotype.!However,!present!
Nanopore sequencing enables near-complete de novo assembly of
Previous genome assemblies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK113 7D have been based on homology with the folded into 16 chromosomes. This assembly
Genetic screen identifies adaptive aneuploidy as a key
we performed a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to iden-tify genome adaptations that confer resistance to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Whole-genome sequenc-ing of tunicamycin-resistant mutants revealed that ER stress resis-tance correlated significantly with gains of chromosomes II and XIII.
RNA as a Flexible Scaffold for Proteins: Yeast Telomerase and
The ends of linear chromosomes cannot be replicated or Est2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The RNAs folded into a structure somewhat similar to that of
Common Functions of Disordered Proteins across Evolutionary
Mar 19, 2020 tolerance to desiccation when heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Furthermore, the disordered yeast hydrophilin HSP12 alleviated the damage caused by severe water loss, indicating a synergistic and independent activity together with trehalose . Interestingly, although HSP12
RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The double-stranded break
junction of homologous chromosomes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, meiotic recombination is initiated by chromatin locus- and timing-specific DNA double-strand breaks [1-3], which require the function of the SPO11 protein [4,5].Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPO11 shares amino acid sequence homology with
Real-time imaging of DNA loop extrusion by condensin
Feb 21, 2018 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. condensin complex in real time (Fig. 1A). We tethered both ends of a double-stranded 48.5-kilobase pair (kbp) λ-DNA molecule to a passivated surface (14, 15), using flow to adjust the DNA endto-end - length to a distance much shorter than its contour length (Fig. 1B). We then imaged DNA after staining with Sytox
Cyclin-dependent kinase promotes formation of the
During the meiotic prophase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, only one CDK, Cdc28, which forms a complex with B-type cyclins, Clb5 or Clb6, promotes not only the onset of premeiotic DNA replication but also the formation of meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this study, we showed that Cdc28 exhibits punctate staining on chromosomes during mei-
An Overview of Genome Organization and How We Got There: from
yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. THE GENOME IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUCLEUS The Nuclear Lamina In mammals, the genome is contained within the cell nucleus, a double-membrane organelle that effectively segregates the tran-scription machinery from the cytoplasm, where protein produc-tionoccurs(Fig.1).Atitslowestresolution,genomeorganization
Structure 14 2006 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10
Kinetochores in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, assemble on a particularly simple centro-mere (CENs). Short 125 bp point CENs are sufﬁcient for accurate chromosome segregation in S. cerevisiae, whereas the regional centromeres found in human cellsspanmegabasesofDNA,andthoseinﬁssionyeast
Cell, Vol. 29, 305-317. June 1982, Copyright 0 1982 by MIT
isolated from chromosomes Ill and Xl of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Clarke and Carbon, 1980; Fitzgerald-Hayes et al., 1982a). When DNA segments containing either CEN3 or CEN7 7 are intro- duced into yeast on autonomously replicating plas- mids, genetic markers on these plasmids are stably
letters to nature
24. Churcher, C. et al. The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IX. Nature 387, (Suppl) 84 87 (1997). 25. Feuermann, M., De Montigny, J., Potier, S. & Souciet, J.-L. The characterization of two new clusters of duplicated genes suggests a lego organization of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes.
CHAPTER 5 INVESTIGATING SNARE-INTERACTIONS BY FUNCTIONAL
COMPLEMENTATION IN Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND PULL-DOWN ASSAYS WITH α-SNAP 5.1. INTRODUCTION In 1977 it was shown that a gene from a higher eukaryote could be expressed in a microorganism, Escherichia coli, to produce a biologically active protein, somatostatin (Kingsman et al. 1985).
Mathematical Model of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle
The cell cycle of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is regulated by a complex network of chemical reactions controlling the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), a family of protein kinases that drive the major events of the cell cycle. A previous mathematical model by Chen et al. (2000) described a molecular mechanism