Olfactory Receptors In Aquatic And Terrestrial Vertebrates

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Two classes of olfactory receptors in xenopus laevis

lian-like receptors are expressed in sensory neurons of the main diverticulum, responsible for the reception of volatile odors. Introduction The olfactory system of vertebrates recognizes and distin- guishes thousands of odors. This tremendous task is ac- complished by the chemosensory neurons in the olfactory

Newly Discovered Olfactory Receptors in Epidermal

their bodies. Indeed, some vertebrates retain chemical receptors on their skin until they enter terrestrial life. For exam-ple, the odorant receptor family gene OR2Z4 is not expressed in adult frog skin, but it is expressed in larval skin (Amano and Gascuel, 2012). Thus, odo-rant receptors may have been expressed extensively on the skin

Olfactory receptors in Xenopus laevis

receptors recognize volatiles (Freitag et al., 1998; Sun et al., 1999). Amphibia live in aquatic as well as terrestrial environments, and perform the transition between the aquatic and terrestrial lifestyle during metamorphosis (Nieuwkoop and Faber, 1956). They are capable of detecting both water-soluble and volatile odorants (Elepfandt, 1996).

Genomic analysis of orthologous mouse and human olfactory

in vertebrates and invertebrate species. In mammals, volatile odorants are detected by a family of as many as 1,000 receptors, each expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (1). Terrestrial vertebrates have a second anatomically and functionally distinct olfactory system, the vomeronasal organ, dedicated to the de-tection of pheromones (2, 3).

Convergent evolution of olfactory and thermoregulatory

olfactory bulb and cribriform plate, two components of olfaction, compared to their terrestrial relatives (24 26). Aquatic vertebrates also have a smaller repertoire of functional olfactory receptor (OR)genes thanterrestrialvertebrates(27 32).Nevertheless,how pervasive, consistent, and strong these putative convergences and

Taste and Smell Receptors - MARRIC

The receptor cells for the sense of smell (olfaction) in terrestrial vertebrates are located in two clefts in the upper part of the nasal passages (See Figure below). Unlike the receptor cells for taste, which are specialized receptor cells, olfactory receptors are modified sensory neurons. The cell bodies of

Do Snakes Use Olfactory Receptors in the Nose to Detect Odors

7. Freitag J, Ludwig G, Andreini I, Rossler P, Breer H. Olfactory receptors in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates. J Comp Physiol [A]. 1998,183(5), 635-50. 8. Niimura Y, Nei M. Extensive gains and losses of olfactory receptor genes in mammalian evolution. PLoS ONE. 2007, 2(8), e708 9. Young J.M., Trask B.J. The sense of smell: genomics of

The Review for Olfactory Receptor Genes

Mammals use the olfactory system as one of the basic instinct to avoid dangers and search s for food.Many researches showed olfactory receptors (ORs) in mammals are encoded by the largest multigene family. Beside it has been suggested that the activation of ORs also have the links to reproductive and immune systems.

Olfactory Receptor Genes: Evolution

encoding olfactory receptors (ORs), and OR genes con-stitute the largest multigene family in mammals. Com-parisons among the ORgene repertoires in a broad range of species demonstrates that gene duplication and pseu-dogenization cause frequent gene gain and loss in this family, causing drastic evolutionary changes in the num-

Fish Smell. Focus on Odorant Specificity of Single Olfactory

Thus terrestrial invertebrates and vertebrates and aquatic vertebrates display a roughly laminar olfactory bulb (vertebrates) or antennal lobe (invertebrates) wherein olfactory receptor neurons coalesce into small regions of dense neuropil called glomeruli within which the receptor neurons synapse with olfactory second-order projection neu-rons.

Convergent degeneration of olfactory receptor gene

Olfactory receptors (ORs) can bind odor molecules and are crucial in olfactory sensation [1, 2]. Buck and Axel first identified the OR gene in rats in 1991 and won the 2004 Nobel Prize for their achievement [1]. These recep-tors are widely distributed in animals, including terres-trial vertebrates, fish, arthropods and other animals.

Environmental Factors Affecting Chemoreceptors: An Overview

trial and aquatic chemosensory environments. Addi-tional environmental hazards derived from human culture (1-3) can, however, overwhelm the survival mechanisms of chemoreceptors (4, 5). Olfaction For terrestrial vertebrates, the environmental challenges to taste and olfactory receptors are rather different. Chemicals in solution or suspen-

Origin and evolution of the vertebrate vomeronasal system

vertebrates, this supports the presence of a VNS precursor. The signal transduction pathway for VNS chemoreception has become increasingly clear in recent years (Fig. 1 and reviewed in Ref. 21). The signal is initiated bya ligand binding to one of two types of VNS-specific G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This binding alters the conformation of

Aquatic adaptation and the evolution of smell and taste in whales

aquatic life. Regarding taste, most of their taste receptors have been lost [12,13], but it is not clear whether the remaining receptors are still functional or not. Olfaction has been studied in laboratory mammals: ol-factory sensory neurons (OSNs) are located in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity and each OSN expresses


sequences spanning aquatic, semiaquatic, and terrestrial vertebrate species, and the resulting trees indicate split divergence patterns across CR types. More specifically, olfactory receptors (ORs) and trace amine associated receptors (TAARs) appear to be most closely related to transitional vertebrate and terrestrial species orthologs, and


olfactory fatigue. Design experiments to determine the relationship between olfaction and memory and/or other factors, such as gender. Teacher Background Olfaction refers to the sense of smell, which has similarities in all terrestrial and many aquatic vertebrates. The mechanisms that control olfaction are divided into distinct regions.

Optical characterization of ligand-induced staining of

vertebrates, the olfactory system is coupled in function with the endocrine system and the rest of the sensory organs e.g. the gustatory organ. Its specificity differs in various animals. Similar to the observation made in humans, perception of odour as stimuli is initiated by the olfactory system, specifically in the olfactory bulb (OB)

Olfactory signalling in vertebrates and insects: differences

Olfactory signalling in vertebrates and insects: differences and commonalities U. Benjamin Kaupp Abstract Vertebrates and insects have evolved complex repertoires of chemosensory receptors to detect and distinguish odours. With a few exceptions, vertebrate chemosensory receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors that initiate

The Physics and Biology of Olfaction and Taste

sory cells, olfactory, vomeronasal, and taste receptors in both terrestrial and aquatic tetrapods are covered by thin layers of mucous. Within this thin 0.1 to 1 millimeter thick unstirred layer, molecules spread exclusively by diffusion (Dusenbery, 1992). Diffusion is faster in air than in water

Sensory sea slugs - tandfonline.com

the main olfactory epithelium and vome-ronasal organ.3 Meanwhile, Benton et al. 2009,4 were first to discover that variant ionotropic receptors were chemosensory in insects and appear to enhance processing speed. Insect olfactory systems respond to a smaller range of odorants than terrestrial vertebrates, and their genomes in turn

Evolution of insect olfactory receptors - MPG.PuRe

the sea to live on land. According to this idea, olfactory receptors evolved because these ancestors needed to be able to detect odor molecules floating in the air rather than dissolved in water. Previous research on insect olfactory receptors has focused on insects with wings. Missbach et al.

Information Processing in the Mammalian Olfactory System

In terrestrial environments, chemical signals can be either volatile or nonvolatile. Accordingly, terrestrial ver-tebrates have two functionally and anatomically distinct olfactory systems: one detecting volatile cues (the main olfactory system) and another thought to process mostly nonvolatile signals (the vomeronasal system) (Fig. 1).

Home - Ambystoma.uky.edu

Olfactory and vomeronasal systems can also be distinguished functionally. based on the type of stimuli to they respond. In terrestrial animals, only volatile molecules have access to the olfactory epithelium, and so olfactory receptors respond to low-molecular- weight compounds. In contrast. the receptors

The Vertebrate Olfactory System Chemical Neuroanatomy

Although the human olfactory system is capable of discriminating a vast number of odors, we do not currently understand what chemical features are encoded by olfactory receptors. In large part Human olfactory receptor responses to odorants In terrestrial vertebrates and insects we frequently think of olfaction as the chemosensory modality

Evolutionary dynamics of olfactory receptor genes in

by olfactory receptors (ORs). OR genes were first identified from rats by Buck and Axel in 1991.1 They discovered a huge multigene family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), of which expression is restricted to the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity, and suggested that there are 1,000 different OR genes in mammalian genomes.

Editorial for the special issue 'Olfactory Coding and

The rst series of reviews about vertebrates focusses on the olfactory systems of aquatic and amphibious species, deals with the adaptations necessary for a transition from aquatic to aerial olfaction, and discusses the diculties that secondarily aquatic vertebrates had to readjust the olfactory system to an aquatic habitat.

The Vertebrate Olfactory System Chemical Neuroanatomy

Vertebrates sense chemical stimuli through the olfactory epithelium, where receptor neurons send axons to the main olfactory bulb Axons of the projection (mitral) cells of the main olfactory bulb are directed to the olfactory cortex and olfactory amygdala, specifically the anterior and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nuclei [ 3 - 5 ].

Changes in the Olfactory Response to Amino Acids in Japanese

activation by odorants of olfactory receptors (ORs) located in the olfactory cilia (Buck and Axel, 1991). The unique olfactory response of amphibians has been studied exten-sively. Amphibians have adapted to both terrestrial and aquatic life. Early behavioral studies suggest that amphibi-ans are capable of olfaction of both volatile and water-

Cloning and localization of two multigene receptor families

Aquatic vertebrates have a single kind of olfactory epithe-lium, whereas terrestrial vertebrates possess a vomeronasal organ (VNO) in addition to a main olfactory epithelium (MOE) (14, 15). The VNO of rodents and other land animals plays a key role in detecting pheromones that govern mating behavior (16). However, the VNO does not have a monopoly


animal kingdom. The organization of the olfactory system and brain, independently evolved across many taxa, makes it almost inevitable that chemical communication will evolve as animals are selected to respond to their chemical enviroimient (Wyatt, 2003). As might be expected, pheromones play key roles in the lives of insects and vertebrates.

Positive selection on panpulmonate mitogenomes provide new

from vertebrates showed various molecular mechanisms of adaptation: duplication and functional diversification of keratin genes [10], expansion of genes encoding olfactory receptors to detect airborne ligands [11], and positive selection on either nuclear genes involved in the urea cycle [12], or mitochondrial genes responding to the in-

Trpc2 is expressed in two olfactory subsystems, the main and

terrestrial vertebrates including rodents (Liberles, 2014). In rodents, the main and vomeronasal systems are separated anatomically, morphologically and molecularly. Their main olfactory epithelium (MOE) contains ciliated olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) generally expressing OR-type olfactory receptors that are endowed

Olfaction across the water air interface in anuran amphibians

to aquatic olfactory organs. In air, on the other hand, the volatility of odor molecules plays a decisive role in the ease of dispersion in the medium (Eisthen and Schwenk 2008). Highly volatile molecules are distributed easily in air and are thus preferentially accessible to the olfactory organs of terrestrial animals. During tetrapod evolution,

ARTICLE IN PRESS - Department of Zoology at UBC

breathing vertebrates at both peripheral and central sites. Recent evidence, however, suggests that fish also possess chemoreceptors responsive to changes in P CO 2 per se. In many species these receptors reside in the gills and respond primarily to changes in aquatic rather than arterial P CO 2. There is also scattered evidence to suggest


Terrestrial salamanders of the genus Plethodon are among many vertebrates possessing both main olfactory and vomeronasal systems, which the Volatility Theory posits are for detection of volatile and soluble olfactory cues, respectively. Further recent work showing a high

The evolutionary origins of the vertebrate olfactory system

In aquatic vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, a homologous olfactory system to that of terrestrial vertebrates detects waterborne rather than airborne chemicals, while insects possess a well-described system in their antennae that senses airborne chemi-cals and is usually called an olfactory system, but is convergently evolved at

Keywords: Drosophila J. Neurochem.

OSNs of both terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates (Mombaerts 2004a), including the primitive lamprey (Freitag et al. 1999). OR genes can be divided into two primary phylogenetic classes: mammals contain both Class I and Class II OR genes, while the genomes of jawed fishes contain only the more ancient Class I OR genes (Mombaerts 2004a).